RAU

RAU

Tyre Wear in the Environment
Coordinator

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Matthias Barjenbruch
and Daniel Venghaus

Technical University of Berlin,
Institute for Civil Engineering,
Faculty VI Planning Building Environment,
Institute of Civil Engineering,
Chair of Urban Water Management /
TUB FG Siwawi
Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25
13355 Berlin
Tel.: +49 30 314 72247
e-mail: matthias.barjenbruch@tu-berlin.de

Duration Period
August 2017
July 2020
Description

Plastics in the environment are an increasingly serious challenge. As macroplastics deteriorate, such as through tire abrasion, the resulting microplastics can enter the aquatic environment through a variety of entry points. As vehicle traffic increases, there is an inevitable increase in microplastics from worn tires ending up in the environment. The amount of tire abrasion and the resulting microplastics entering the aquatic environment via road runoff have not yet been researched.  

The joint research project RAU seeks to address this and will comprehensively describe tire particles throughout the useful service life of tires, closing the knowledge gaps on where particle loss occurs over the entire life cycle. The goal is to identify and assess the entry points of tire materials into the aquatic environment and to develop reduction measures. RAU will then verify selected measures for reducing the emission of tire material into the aquatic environment. On the basis of various influencing factors, an evaluation matrix will be developed for deriving the most suitable measures to reduce tire abrasion in different locations.

Key areas of work

  • Development of a sampling basket for fractional sampling of individual rain events
  • Analytical evaluation of environmental samples for tire abrasion
  • Measurement of abrasion, quantification of subsets and subsequent qualitative examination
  • Further development of the pollution load simulation
  • Optimise the street cleaning

WP 1.1 Analytical concept

Contact person
Dr. Jens Reiber, WESSLING GmbH, Oststraße 6, 48341 Altenberge, e-mail: jens.reiber@wessling.de

Project partners
TUB FG Siwawi, Continental, GKD

Short description
The goal is to develop, implement and evaluate analysis concepts including chemical and physical methods to identify and quantify tire abrasion particles in road runoff, road sweepings and as airborne particles. The sample preparation of aqueous and solid samples is particularly important. Due to the different compositions, the analysis concept should allow for determining the quantities and emissions into the environment, both in total and in part for individual groups of substances. This will be done using one or more defined control parameters.

WP 1.2. Sampling concept

Contact person
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Matthias Barjenbruch, Technical University of Berlin, Faculty VI - Planning Building Environment, Institute of Civil Engineering, Chair of Urban Water Management, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin, e-mail: matthias.barjenbruch@tu-berlin.de

Project partner
Wessling, IPS, GKD, Continental, BWB

Short description
Environmental samples will be systematically obtained from road runoff, road sweepings and air, in such amounts that reproducible analysis can be carried out. For all tests, a sampling concept will be prepared in advance by the partners mentioned. As part of the sampling concept, a sampling area-dependent data collection plan was created. The sampling concept for the in situ measurement of the different catchment areas takes into account up to 30 rain events per year and a variety of measurement points. The challenge is to sample individual rain events and evaluate the runoff quantities.

WP 1.3 Development of the sampling basket

Contact person
Dipl.-Ing. Markus Knefel, GKD – Gebr. Kufferath AG, Metallweberstraße 46, 52353 Düren, e-mail: markus.knefel@gkd.de

Project partner
Wessling, IPS, GKD, Continental, BWB

Short description
Tire abrasion particles will be collected from road run-off water in a targeted manner. For this purpose, GKD will design a sampling basket for street drains that allows fractional sampling of a rain event directly in the drainage shaft using defined mesh sizes (lower separation limit ≤ 10 μm). Initially, development will be carried out virtually by creating various geometries and simulation models, on the one hand, to find an ideal flow path and, on the other hand, to ensure fractionation of the collected particles. The most promising design will then be realized in GKD‘s in-house filter construction facility. Below the sampling basket, an explosion-proof measurement technology from ORI will be implemented which records the flow rate data and transmits it wirelessly via GPRS. The function of the sampling basket will be verified under defined conditions at the test stand (FG Urban Water Management). The sampling basket will be examined with regard to its potential as a decentralised treatment plant for street drains. An appropriate backwashing device for the sampling basket will then be developed.

WP 1.4 Analytical evaluation of the methodology and routine analysis

Contact person
Dr. Jens Reiber, WESSLING GmbH, Oststraße 6, 48341 Altenberge, e-mail: jens.reiber@wessling.de

Project partner
Continental

Short description
The samples taken by WESSLING and provided by the partners (road runoff, road sweepings, air particles) will be analysed according to the agreed and implemented analysis and sampling concept and through statistical evaluation. A significant amount of data will be generated for this purpose.

WP 2.1 Production, use, recycling/recovering/disposing

Contact person
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Matthias Barjenbruch, Technical University of Berlin, Institute for Civil Engineering, Faculty VI - Planning Building Environment, Institute of Civil Engineering, Chair of Urban Water Management, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin, e-mail: matthias.barjenbruch@tu-berlin.de

Project partner
Continental, TUB FG Reibung, ADAC

Short description
The goal is to prepare a literature study and evaluation of existing data from Continental on the tire‘s life cycle. The study will enable the assessment of the input of tire particles into the environment throughout the product life cycle. On a theoretical basis, gaps in knowledge on losses of tire particles in production, use and recycling/ recovering/disposal are to be closed.

WP 2.2 Identification of the influencing factors in the use phase

Contact person
Prof. Dr. Valentin Popov, Technical University of Berlin, Faculty V of Mechanical Engineering and Transport Systems, Institute of Mechanics, Department of System Dynamics and Friction Physics, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, e-mail: v.popov@tu-berlin.de

Project partner
Continental, TUB FG Siwawi, ADAC, VW, IPS

Short description
The aim is to theoretically identify the influencing variables on abrasion quantities throughout the service life of the tire such as climate, road surface, speed, acceleration, braking behaviour, vehicle class and weight. The Department of System Dynamics and Friction Physics will conduct wear experiments and examine the resulting particles microscopically to generate reference points for theoretical analysis.

WP 2.3 Laboratory abrasion test stand

Contact person
Dr. Frank Schmerwitz, Continental Reifen Deutschland GmbH, Jädekamp 30, 30419 Hannover, e-mail: frank.schmerwitz@conti.de

Project partner
TUB FG Reibung

Short description
Wear mechanisms and rates will be determined through laboratory testing. For this purpose, tests are conducted for the following variables: six tread compounds, three loads, three temperatures, two lanes. The samples will be measured by the TUB FG Reibung.

WP 2.4 Test drives

Contact person
Dr. Frank Schmerwitz, Continental Reifen Deutschland GmbH, Jädekamp 30, 30419 Hannover, e-mail: frank.schmerwitz@conti.de

Project partner
TUB FG Siwawi, TUB FG Reibung, VW

Short description
The wear rates of the tires will be estimated depending on the driving dynamics. For this purpose, driving tests will be conducted on a Continental test track with the developed sampling basket installed on the test track. Continental will plan and carry out the tests together with the VW Department of Vehicle Dynamics and the TUB.

WP 3.1 Investigations test stand

Contact person
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Matthias Barjenbruch, Technical University of Berlin, Institute for Civil Engineering, Faculty VI - Planning Building Environment, Institute of Civil Engineering, Chair of Urban Water Management, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin, e-mail: matthias.barjenbruch@tu-berlin.de

Project partner
IPS

Short description
The goal is to describe the tire abrasion behaviour by conducting rinsing tests at a special test stand of FG Urban Water Management for different rain intensities and road surfaces. For these tests, the existing test stand for simulating different rain events of the FG will be equipped with an irrigation section specifically adapted for this project and different road surfaces will be integrated. These are loaded with tire abrasion particles and road sweepings and drained via a road drainage shaft. The whole test material can be separated again at the outlet via sieves. The runoff behaviour in the gutter and in the road drainage shaft can already be simulated on the test stand; the corresponding test materials will be added to the water flow in the gutter via metering units. Only with the additional irrigation unit consisting of atomisation and different road surfaces, can the removal behaviour be investigated and described in terms of area.

WP 3.2 Road investigation

Contact person
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Matthias Barjenbruch, Technical University of Berlin, Institute for Civil Engineering, Faculty VI - Planning Building Environment, Institute of Civil Engineering, Chair of Urban Water Management, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin, e-mail: matthias.barjenbruch@tu-berlin.de

Project partner
BSR

Short description
The aim is to describe the waste matrix of the road through sweeping tests and to estimate the input potential for substances in the road runoff. The FG Urban Water Management will continuously carry out sweeping tests on a defined area (approx. 40 m2) on the test track Clayallee (main road). In addition to the manual sweeping samples, samples will be collected by a small road sweeper from BSR.

WP 3.3 In situ measurement sampling basket

Contact person
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Matthias Barjenbruch, Technical University of Berlin, Institute for Civil Engineering, Faculty VI - Planning Building Environment, Institute of Civil Engineering, Chair of Urban Water Management, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin, e-mail: matthias.barjenbruch@tu-berlin.de

Project partner
GKD, IPS, BWB, Continental

Short description
The developed sampling basket will be used for street drains from a main road, side road, motorway, parking lot, airport and the Contidrom, Continental’s tire test facility. It may be possible to study an airport within Berlin, else an external airport will be used. Important decision criteria are the number of take-offs and landings as well as the size classes of the certified aircrafts. Sampling baskets are installed in the selected rainwater drains and in the event of a rain event, a notification will be automatically sent from the sampling point to the FG Urban Water Management and the quantities of rainwater flowing through the basket. This makes it possible to estimate the rain event and initiate the necessary transport of the samples.

WP 3.4 Air measurement

Contact person
Dr. Jens Reiber, WESSLING GmbH, Oststraße 6, 48341 Altenberge, e-mail: jens.reiber@wessling.de

Project partner
TUB FG Siwawi

Short description
The goal is to determine concentrations of airborne tire abrasion particles at the locations of WP 3.3 with the aid of mobile air sampling units (MVS - Medium Volume Sampler). The air measurements shall serve as a benchmark, therefore only random samples are planned. As part of the site selection for the road run-off drain sampling, the possibility to use existing infrastructures for fine dust measurements will also be checked.

WP 4.1 Street cleaning analysis

Contact person
Dr. Harald Sommer, Ingenieurgesellschaft Prof. Dr. Sieker mbH, Rennbahnallee 109A, 15366 Hoppegarten, e-mail: h.sommer@sieker.de

Project partner
BSR, TUB FG Siwawi

Short description
The effectiveness of street cleaning will be analysed focusing on the mechanical treatment of roads as well as walking and cycling paths. Vehicle types such as street washing vehicles, truck-mounted sweeping and small sweeping machines are used, which are prepared before each project-related use in order to prevent carry-over of sample material. After recording and examining the accumulated pollutants on the surface, conclusions can be drawn as to the effectiveness of street cleaning. This effectiveness is expected to be significantly influenced by the vehicle types used and the corresponding cleaning methods (wet/dry), the variability of the examination areas, the cleaning intervals, driving speeds and other various settings of the vehicle's technology. Cleaning services for different weather conditions will be investigated and their potential for improvement recorded and described.

WP 4.2 In situ measurement of road drains

Contact person
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Matthias Barjenbruch, Technical University of Berlin, Institute for Civil Engineering, Faculty VI - Planning Building Environment, Institute of Civil Engineering, Chair of Urban Water Management, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin, e-mail: matthias.barjenbruch@tu-berlin.de

Project partner
BSR, IPS, BWB

Short description
In the existing test section of the Clayallee (Berlin Steglitz-Zehlendorf) the FG Urban Water Management will examine wet sludge traps with and without coarse material buckets. When sampling the wet sludge traps, the entire sludge trap volume will be pumped out and then a corresponding aliquot sample will be collected.

WP 5.1 In situ measurement of road drains

Contact person
Dr. Harald Sommer, Ingenieurgesellschaft Prof. Dr. Sieker mbH, Rennbahnallee 109A, 15366 Hoppegarten, e-mail: h.sommer@sieker.de

Project partner
BSR, IPS, BWB

Short description
The goal is to prepare and carry out pollution load simulations with the hydrological pollution load model STORM-SEWSYS. The model takes into account the accumulation of the emissions and the influence of rain events on the erosion for the calculation of particles entering into the sewer system. STORM-SEWSYS will be extended and adapted for use as part of the project. In addition to freight generation on the basis of DTV (Daily Traffic), approaches for freight generation at load points and road sections with different section characteristics, which are simulated during tire tests, are being developed. The load values correlate with the tire abrasion at the respective load points. This is integrated into SEWSYS via a load factor to be developed and parameterised for practical use. The further developed model will be tested using a sample area. The findings from BSR‘s street cleaning services are also going to be incorporated here. For the transfer to the investigated catchment areas, the hydrological pollution load models utilise an adapted model.

WP 5.2 Potential estimation of de-/central rainwater treatment plants

Contact person
Dr. Harald Sommer, Ingenieurgesellschaft Prof. Dr. Sieker mbH, Rennbahnallee 109A, 15366 Hoppegarten, e-mail: h.sommer@sieker.de

Project partner
TUB FG Siwawi, BWB

Short description
The aim is the integration and parametrization of decentralised treatment plants, such as filter inserts in road drainage shafts, rain clarifiers and retention soil filters in SEWSYS. The existing data for reducing the AFS/AFS63 content of technical treatment systems (decentralised/centralised) are used to estimate the retention potential for tire particles. For this purpose, the systems are integrated into the created models by IPS with STORM for specific catchment areas. An estimate of the cleaning performance of decentralised treatment plants should be made mainly with regard to AFS63 as a sum parameter. Conclusions on the retention of tire abrasion can then be drawn from the proportions of the corresponding fractions determined in the project. The model created in WP 5.1 is used to simulate the catchment areas. The estimation of the potential of the plants is based on the results of existing research projects and the measurements within the framework of the RAU research project.

WP 6 Establishment of the set of measures and evaluation tool

Project partner
all

Short description
Based on the data and findings gained in the project, an initial recommendation for action (evaluation tool) and a catalogue of measures will be developed. For this purpose, the generated data sets will be scientifically analysed. The analysis is the basis for the evaluation of potential depressions of tire abrasion in the system of roadway and run-off drainage shafts and for the preparation of the set of measures. Important transfer variables are mass balance, particle size distribution and chemical properties.

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